Health Access (Health Facilities, Personnel)
The health sector has played a major role in ensuring that most of the County‘s population can access affordable healthcare services. There is Makueni level five Hospital, six level four hospitals at Kilungu, Makindu, Mbooni, Kibwezi, Mukaa and Nzaui. The County also has 21 level three, 113 dispensaries and eleven private clinics.
Most of the public health institutions lack sufficient drugs, equipment, means of transportation and health personnel.
The bed capacity in the County stands at 616 and doctor population ratio is 1:22,712 which is below the accepted standards. There are nine VCTs and 138 counselors in the County which need to be increased to accommodate the population. The average household distance to health facility is six Kilometers which is way below the national
recommended distance of four Kilometers.
The immunization rate in the County is 62.26 per cent while contraceptive acceptance rate is 30.75 per cent.
Education, Sports & ICT
The County has 1,510 Early Childhood Development (ECD) Centres with a total enrolment of 41,820 composed of 21,922 boys and 19,898 girls. There is a high retention rate of 94.4 per cent and average of two years of attendance. There are 1315 teachers translating into a teacher pupil ratio is 1:25.
The County has 982 primary schools out of which 914 are Government owned while 68 are private owned. The total enrolment is 269,752 pupils and 7,242 teachers which translate into a teacher pupil ratio of 1:37. The retention rate is 93 per cent. On average most of the pupils (70 per cent) cover a long distance of 5Km and more to the nearest school. The Gross Enrolment rate in primary school stands at 120 per cent meaning there
are many children who are above age 6-13 age group who are in primary school.
The illiteracy rate in the County is 22.41 per cent against the national level of 28.59 per cent. This shows that, the County is better off compared to the whole country.
By the year 2012 there were 339 secondary schools with a total enrolment of 75,985 and a retention rate of 86 per cent. With a total of 2300 teachers, the County has a teacher pupil ratio of 1:33. The transition rate from primary to secondary school is 60 per cent while Gross Enrolment rate stands at 76. 6 per cent
The County has 12 tertiary institutions and two university satellite campuses. Shortage of University and National Polytechnics to accommodate the high numbers of students from secondary Schools, impacts negatively in career development.
Devolution, County Administration, Public Service and Youth
Public participation is a constitutional requirement specifically, Article 1 that states that sovereign power belongs to the people and Article 10 (2) (a) and the Fourth Schedule Part 2 (14) of the Constitution of Kenya and is stipulated as a function of the County Government. Sections 87 to 92 and 115 of the County Governments Act, 2012 outline the principles of public participation and the imperative for facilitating public participation in the work of the County government. Public participation is a structured way of consulting with persons, groups and entities before decisions are made. It is designed to give a voice to the voiceless and cements the concept of agency to the County Government, that is, the County government becomes an agent of the people. Public participation is not meant to convey decisions already made, but to generate and confirm decisions. It is not a political process but a non-partisan process that involves the agent going to ‘take instruction and direction’ from the people.
Trade, Industry, Marketing, Tourism & Co-operative Development
The County has limited industries mainly due to limited natural resources, location from major urban centres and low level of investment. The two main industries include cotton ginnery and a bakery. However, there are light industries especially in the jua kali sector hich produce for the local market. This includes dye making from tree barks & roots, ciondo, mats, baskets and wooden carvings. The County has seven jua kali associations employing over 1,000 artisans. The light industries are mainly operated by self-help groups. In total there are five industries which includes; Makueni Ginnery, Makindu- cycle Assembly, Makueni dairy Farmers co-operative society, Kibwezi Honey Refineries and Mash bakers‘ inn.
The County shares part of the famous Tsavo National park which is considered as one of the world’s biodiversity strongholds. Tourism activities are mainly confined within the park which is rich in diverse wildlife which include the famous ‘big five’ consisting of Maasai lion, black rhino, cape buffalo, red elephant and leopard. The park is also home to a great variety of bird life such as the black kite, crowned crane, lovebird and the sacred Ibis. To support tourism there are three one star hotels situated in Wote and Mtito Andei. There is a need to invest in more tourism class hotels in the County.
Main tourist attractions, National Parks/Reserves
The County shares a small part of the famous Tsavo National park which is considered as one of the world’s biodiversity strongholds. There is also the Chyulu hill game reserve in Kibwezi.
Tourism activities are mainly confined within the park which is rich in diverse wildlife which include the famous ‘big five’ consisting of Maasai Lion, Black Rhino, Cape Buffalo, Red Elephant and Leopard. The park also is also home to a great variety of bird life such as the Black Kite, Crowned crane, Lovebird and the sacred Ibis.
Roads, Transport, Energy and Public Works
Road, Rail Network and Airstrips
The County has a total road network of 3,203.5 Km of which 453.8Kms is bitumen, 555.2Kms gravel, and 2,198.6Kms surface roads. The main roads in the County are Katumani-Wote-Makindu road, Masii-Mbumbuni road Salama-Kikoko and Mombasa road. The bitumen roads are in fairly good condition but most of the gravel and surface roads are in poor state which makes them impassable during rain seasons.The County is traversed by a railway line which covers 140 kms. Major railway stations are Makindu, Kibwezi, Mtito-Andei and Emali. It also have has one airstrip situated in Makindu and it is operational.
Electricity coverage within the County has been expanded through the rural electrification Programme. More than 2000 households have been connected. Electricity is mostly used in the households for lighting purposes. There is need to upscale connections particularly in the upcoming markets and institutions. The County
experiences long hours of sunshine that has not been exploited to provide solar energy largely. This is largely due to lack of financial capabilities and low awareness of technologies for installation and utilization of this environmentally friendly renewable source of energy.
Firewood is the major source of cooking fuel accounting for 84.8 per cent of households, followed by charcoal at 11.1per cent. However, this poses a great danger to the environment. Paraffin is the most used source of energy for lighting in the households at 69 per cent followed by electricity and solar at 5.9 per cent and 3.8 per cent respectively.
Agriculture, Irrigation, Livestock & Fisheries Development
Main crops produced
The main crops produced in the County are Maize, Green grams, pigeon peas and sorghum. Mangoes, pawpaw and oranges are also being produced. Grafted mangoes are vastly gaining momentum due to the high demand and favorable conditions.
Acreage under Food Crops and Cash Crops
The total area under cash and food crop is 23,356 Ha and 65,453 Ha respectively which is 2.9 per cent and 8.1 per cent respectively of the total County area.
Main Livestock Bred and Ranches
Livestock production is a major economic activity in the County. The main types reared include Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Donkeys, Pigs, Bee and Fish.
The County has 12 ranches with a total area of 45,916 Hectares. Kima estate and Kiu ranches are owned by cooperatives while Aimi ma Kilungu and Malili ranches are owned by companies. There are eight ranches owned by individuals Stanley & sons, Sultan Estates, Uathimo Farm, Mwaani, Muiu farm, Nzai farm, Kalima and New Ashtra.
Main Fishing Activities and Types of Fish Produced
Fish farming was introduced recently in the County through the Economic Stimulus Programme, where more than 825 fish ponds were established and stocked with Tilapia fish. Despite the effort, water shortage and high temperatures are the major challenges facing fish farming.
Lands, Urban Development, Environment and Climate Change
The department has invested in urban infrastructure development in order to enhance connectivity and accessibility, safety and security within urban areas through informed planning, by Cabro-paving roads in Wote town, constructed Emali Bus Park, Nunguni Bus Park and installation of street and floodlights in market centers which increased trading hours and enhanced security
Land and land use
The County has a total arable land of 5042.69Km2 which is 74 percent of the total area. A total of 1,762.71Km2 is non-arable accounting for 21.9 percent of the total area. Part of the 2,023 Ha of land that Konza Technology City lies in the County. There are no water masses or industrial area in the County while the urban area accounts for only 7.4 percent of the total area.
Most of the land is used for agricultural purposes since most people depend on agriculture and livestock for their livelihood. The County has potential in horticulture and dairy farming especially the hilly parts of Kilungu and Mbooni west sub counties.
Incidence of Landlessness
Incidence of landlessness is highly recorded in Kibwezi West and East Constituencies where there are about 5,000 squatters. There are 25 settlement schemes in Kibwezi West and East Constituencies. There is need to have a permanent solution to the squatter problem. (Insert Spatial Map)
Major Contributors to Environmental Degradation in the County
The reduced agricultural production due to drought and dry being experienced in the County has immensely contributed to environmental degradation as residents seek an alternative source of livelihood. These include sand harvesting and charcoal burning which have reduced the vegetation and forest cover. Industrial effluent into Athi River at the upstream and plastic materials and poor farming methods has also contributed to
Effects of Environmental Degradation
The degradation has reduced the vegetation cover and also negatively affecting agricultural productivity. The sand harvesting has led to conflicts among groups involved in sand harvesting.
Climate Change Mitigation Measures and Adaptation Strategies
There is reduced forest cover in the County due to charcoal burning which have resulted to soil erosion affecting soil fertility and the crop production. Sand harvesting has also contributed to soil erosion of river banks. The County continues to experience dry spells which are worsening by the day a situation where environmental degradation may have contributed.
Finance and Social-Economic Planning
The department has the following objectives
- Social-economic planning
- County statistics
- County budgets
- County taxation & licensing
It coordinates the other departments, approves their projects and allocates funds to facilitate the projects.
Water and Sanitation
Makueni is a water scarce County. Catchment degradation is undermining the limited sustainable water resources base in the country. Degradation of both surface and ground water resources through over-abstraction and illegal abstraction, among other factors has led to serious degradation of the water resources in terms of quantity and quality. Assessment and monitoring of the water resources base in the County is inadequate. The
inadequacy of actionable data and information makes it increasingly difficult to make informed and transparent decisions on development and sustainable management of water resources in the country. Through Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and promotion of WRUAS there a chance to reverse catchment degradation to ensure coordinated development and management of water, land and other related resources to maximize economic efficiency, social equity and welfare while ensuring ecological sustainability of the vital
environmental systems. IWRM will ensure coordinated development and management of water, land and other related resources to maximize economic efficiency, social equity and welfare while ensuring ecological sustainability of the vital environmental systems.
Athi is the biggest river in the County. There are other semi-permanent rivers such as Kibwezi and Kiboko rivers. There are four protected springs and 117 boreholes. Households with piped water are 12671 and 27752 households have access to potable water. There are 289 water pans and 159 surface dams.
Water Supply schemes
There are 159 water supply schemes with a production capacity of 1360.7m3/hour. Households with piped water are 12,671 and 27,752 households have access to potable water. There are 289 water pans and 159 surface dams in the county.
All the major towns lack sewerage facilities and the sanitation condition is worsened by water shortage. The local community has however embraced the use of toilets and currently about 80 per cent of the households have access to pit latrines.
Gender, Children, Culture and Social Services
Gender refers to the socially constructed or determined roles and responsibilities of women and men. In order to make any meaningful improvement in terms of development, there is need to critically analyze the issue of discrimination by gender and put in place proper arrangements for ensuring both men and women play an important role in the development process in the County. The County has male to female sex ratio of 100:105 which shows that both male and female are fairly balanced. The County residents rely heavily on small-scale farming and livestock rearing for their livelihood. About 80 per cent of these activities are managed and carried out by women. Unfortunately the reason why rural based development activities have remained low is due to the position that women hold in the family set up and in the community. Although women provide Labour and manage development activities, they do not have control of the productive assets such as land and capital. They are, therefore, constrained by lack of authority to control and make decision on the utilization of assets. In many cases property (land) is registered in the name of males, either husband or the first born son. This tradition locks out women from access to credit facilities due to lack of collateral. This has also tended to propagate poverty in the County especially among the female headed households. Though women have not been participating in development committees, the same is changing with the adoption of the constitution 2010.
Self Help, women & youth groups
There are 444 Youth groups and 811 registered women groups of 2012 which are involved in various activities such as HIV/AIDS awareness & care giving, tree planting, small businesses, water projects among others. This calls for an identification and needs assessment and capacity building so that they can take advantage of devolved funds such as youth and women enterprise fund.
There are 29 active NGOs operating in different sectors ranging from water, agriculture, livestock and community welfare. However, there are other NGOs which though registered to operate in the area are inactive. The County to make contacts with these institutions and find areas of collaboration and partnership for economic and social
development of the County and avoid duplication of programmes and activities
Last Update: December 1, 2021