Nairobi County

Food, Agriculture and Forestry


This  section  gives  the  main  crops  produced  in  the  County,  acreage  under  food  and  cash  crop, main storage facility, livestock breeds and number of ranches available in the County. Crop production and value addition is one component of urban agriculture in Nairobi that addresses food and nutrition insecurity in addition to supplementing household incomes.

Most of  the  crop  production  is  to  a  large  extent  small-scale,  market  oriented  and  for  subsistence  where  farmers  have  small  portions  of  land.  Horticulture farming  takes  lead  in  crop production in the County. The main vegetables grown include tomatoes, kales, spinach, cabbage, local vegetables, onions, capsicum and carrots. Fruits grown include passion fruits, mangoes,  bananas  and  avocado.  Several  varieties  of  herbs  and  spices  are  also  grown.  Cut  flowers are also grown, especially in Langata Sub-County.

The  main  food  crops  grown  on  small  scale  basis,  especially  in  peri-urban  Sub  counties  of  Dagoretti  South,  Langata,  Westlands,  Kasarani  and  Roysambu  are  maize,  beans  and  Irish  potatoes. The crops are grown for both household consumption and commercial purposes. The  limited  space  available  for  farming  requires  innovative  urban  farming  technologies  to maximize production per unit area. These technologies include utilizing all available spaces, vertical  space,  roof  tops,  greenhouse  farming,  micro  gardening  such  as  use  of  hanging gardens, multi-storey gardens and container gardens among others.

Agriculture extension, training, research and information services
Agriculture extension services in the County are mainly provided by the public sector including the County Government, parastatals, and research and training institutions, and also by the private and civil society. Extension approaches and methods used include; demand driven and benefi ciary led clientele groups’ focused, indigenous knowledge and technologies sharing. In many instances, benefi ciaries share costs of extension.

Main livestock and other animal breeds and facilities
Livestock production and value addition is a component of urban agriculture in Nairobi that addresses food and nutrition insecurity in addition to supplementing household incomes.Most of the livestock production systems are mainly small-scale, market oriented and for subsistence. The limited space available for livestock farming requires innovative urban farming technologies to maximise production per unit area. These technologies include utilising all available spaces such as vertical, roof tops for small animals and make the most of feeds by-products; including feeds bulking from off -farm sources.

Poultry feeds
They are readily available since most of the commercial animal feed manufacturers are located within the County. Dairy feed resources are mainly hay, Napier grass, road side grass, straw, organic waste from markets and industrial by-products. Chicken for meat, dairy goats, pigs, rabbits are reared for both subsistence and income generation. The County population is a big market for livestock products with the demand outstripping supply.


This section briefly discusses the main forest types, their characteristics and uses. It also highlights some of the main forest products, level of agro-forestry, and value chain development of forestry products. Nairobi has a number of green spaces within and close to the City, which provide its residents with shady recreation areas and visitors with a glimpse of Kenya’s renowned wildlife. Parts of this greenery are the forests.

Main forest types and size of forests
Nairobi County is home to three gazetted forests managed by Kenya Forest Service namely: Karura, Ngong Road Forest and Nairobi Arboretum. Karura Forest is the largest of the threewith 1,041 hectares and one of the largest urban gazetted forests in the world. About 632 hectares contain exotic tree plantations while indigenous trees cover 260 hectares. The rest of the forest is shrubs and other plants. Ngong Road Forest covers 538 hectares with 80% being indigenous trees and 20% exotic eucalyptus plantations. Nairobi Arboretum is 30 hectares of wooded landscape and situated about three kilometres from the City centre.

Devolution, Public Service and Administration

The sector is comprised of the following sub-sectors: Public Service Management, Administration, Sub-County Administration, Public Service Board, Security and Compliance, Disaster Management, Internal Audit & Risk Management, Supply Chain Management and

Public Service Management
Brief Description of the sub-sector
The sub-sector is comprised of Public Service Management and the County Public Service Board. The County Public Service Board (CPSB) is established under section 57 of the CGA as a body corporate with perpetual succession and seal capable of suing and being sued in its corporate name. The Public Service Management sub-sector has five departments namely; Reforms and Performance Contracting, Monitoring & Evaluation, Quality Management Systems, Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management. The sub-
sector is mandated to undertake human resource planning and development.

Public Service Management sub-sector development challenges
Nairobi City County inherited a large number of staff from the National Government in 2013 and it expanded the staff numbers substantially. A huge wage bill has affected provision of basic services in the County due to inadequate resources left for service delivery. Slow adoption of the performance management system, wrong placement, low staff morale and an aging work force have aff ected service delivery in all sectors in the County. Low public confi dence in governance, security and rule of law and under-capacitated and weak institutional infrastructure has impacted negatively on the provision of quality service delivery.

Public Service Management sub-sector strategic objectives

  1. Improve access of quality County services
  2. Promote Public participation and good governance
  3. Improve work environment
  4. Promote performance management
  5. Promote National Values and Cohesion in the Public Service
  6. Provide welfare support facilities in the County Public Service
  7. Automate human resource management services


The Administration Department is one of the departments currently under the Devolution, Public Service Management and Administration sub-sector. It Comprises of Central Administration, Fleet Management, and County Records, Printing Section, Hospitality & O‑ ce Management and CEC-Secretariat. The Department plays a critical role in the overall county performance by: coordinating and providing support services; ensuring eff ective, e‑ cient and responsible use of public resources; ensuring responsiveness by public servants in delivery of public services; and establishing systems to enable innovativeness in public service delivery.

Administration Department development challenges
The slow decentralization of county services and inadequate provision of space in the devolved units has affected service delivery in the County. Slow adoption of ICT in custodial services and weak collaboration and partnership with National Government agencies is a major challenge experienced in the County. In view of the aforementioned challenges, the sector has identified five strategic objectives to address the above challenges. These objectives have been converted into development outcomes which are linked to identifiable and measurable outputs and activities together with SMART indicators to measure and track performance.

Education, Youth and Social Services

Education and literacy and infrastructure
Literacy is the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about the written word. It involves, at all levels, the ability to use and communicate in a diverse range of technologies. Education is very critical for economic development. This sectiongives information on facilities and enrolment, teacher to pupil to student ratios, transition rates, completion rates and retention rates for pre-school education, primary education and secondary education.

Pre-school education
The County has 211 public ECD centres. Among these, 21 are stand-alone ECDs while 190are in main primary schools. The private ECDs are 344 in number. The total number of ECD teachers is 413. The teacher: pupil ratio in the pre-primary school is 1:29. The total enrolment in the public ECDs is 12,019 with that of private ECDs being 182,618. The pre-primary retention rate is 99% with a drop-out rate of 0.2% while the transition rate is 99%.

Primary education
The County has 205 public primary schools with total enrolment of 193,058 and 2000 private primary schools with a total enrolment of 254,476. The teacher to pupil ratio in the primary schools is 1:47. The gross enrolment rate is 84% while the net enrolment rate is 77.8%. Dropout rate stands at 3.6%. The average years of attendance for primary school are 8 years while the retention rate is 90%. Transition rate to secondary is at 78%.

Non-formal education
This is any organized, systematic educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a cross-section of the population across age groups.

Technical, vocational education and training
There are 12 vocational centres in the County with total enrolment of 477 students. The numbers of vocational training instructors is 45. The teacher to student ratio is 1:11; transition rate is 45%while the retention rate is 55%.

Secondary Education
Nairobi County has 95 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools with 2,028 teachers. The teacher to pupil ratio is 1:24 with a total enrolment is 48,669. The gross enrolment rate is at 28.6% while the net enrolment is 25.3%. The dropout rate is 5.5%; completion rate is 91.8% while the retention rate is 94.6 percent.

Tertiary education
Nairobi County hosts two public universities namely, University of Nairobi and Technical University of Kenya. There are ten private universities and 16 campuses operated by both public and private universities in the County. Most of the campuses are located within the Central Business District (CBD). In addition, the County has 237 science and technology institutes.

Adult and continuing education
The County has a total of 224 adult literacy centres. On literacy level, 96.1% of the population can read and write while 2.8% of the population cannot read and write.

Special need education
Enrolment of children with special needs remains low in Nairobi. Currently, there are six special units and 40 integrated schools with a population of 2,249.

Sports, culture and creative Arts

The County has 25 community centres including social halls.
Museums, heritage and cultural sites
The City hosts 10 museums and 40 heritage and cultural sites. The museums include; African Heritage, Pan African Gallery, African Heritage House, August 7th Memorial Park, Bomas of Kenya, Karen Blixen, Kenya National Archives, Nairobi Botanical Garden, Nairobi Gallery, Nairobi Railway Museum and Nairobi Snake Park. The museums are tourist attractions and therefore generate income for the County.

Talent academies and sport facilities
The County has two talent academies of which one is located at city stadium and the other at Kasarani grounds while the existing sports facilities’ grounds are 31.

Environment Energy Water and sanitation

Nairobi County has no major water tower and relies on other neighboring counties within the Tana Basin which is around 50 Km from the City for its water supply.. This bulk water-supply is not reliable during periods of drought, and is also endangered by siltation of the reservoirs due to deforestation in the catchment areas. The supply problem is further aggravated by the poor state of the distribution system, which results in about 38% losses due to leakage, illegal connections and ine‑ cient and wasteful use of water by some consumers.

Water sources and access
The main sources of water for the residents in Nairobi County are from Thika Dam (Ndakaini Dam) in Murangá County, Sasumua Dam in Nyandarua County, Kikuyu Springs, Ruiru Dam and Ngethu water works. Although Nairobi River is permanent, its water is unsafe for human consumption. There are residents that use borehole water, water kiosks especially those in slums, wells and roof catchments. Over 80% of the residents have access to piped water. On average, 52.5% and 24.7% of the population takes 0 and 1-4 minutes respectively to fetch water. Only 0.9%of the population takes 30-59 minutes to the nearest water point.

In the County, about 61.5% of the population use fl ush toilets as the main waste disposal
method, while 32.1% use pit latrines. The remaining 4.8% of the population have no means
of waste disposal. On garbage collection, 36.1% of the communities have their garbage collected by private fi rms and similar % is collected by neighborhood community groups.

Finance and Economic Planning

The Finance and Economic Planning is responsible for:

  • Procurement of goods & services
  • Stores
  • Revenue mobilization
  • Rates
  • Debt Collection
  • Accounting Services
  • Technical Services

Health Services

Health access is ability of a person to receive and pay for health care services, which is a
function of availability of personnel and supplies as well as the ability to pay for those services.
This section gives the health access situation, morbidity rates, nutrition status, immunization coverage and access to family planning services in the County.

Health access
Of the 681 health facilities in the County, only 115 (17%) are publicly owned comprising of four
County referral hospitals, 33 health centres, 55 dispensaries and 23 clinics. There is need to increase the number of health facilities, to upgrade the dispensaries and clinics to health centres, and health centres to sub-county referral hospitals to increase access to health services. The health facilities also need to be adequately equipped to offer services that are commensurate with their levels of care. The County also needs to collaborate with other sectors to improve access roads to some of the health facilities.

Nutritional status
Stunting levels for children less than five years is 26% while the proportion of children who are stunted stands at 5%. The proportion of children under 5 who are underweight is 11% while that of children under five who are overweight stands at 5%.

Immunisation coverage
In Nairobi County, 94.8% (12–23 months) of children are fully vaccinated.

Lands, Urban planning, Urban renewal, Housing and Projects Management

Industrial and commercial land has dwindled in the last decade and many industries have been relocating to other counties particularly Machakos. The projected housing land requirement is estimated to be 250 Km2. Land meant for urban agriculture has been on the decline as more of it is turned to residential use with the City relying on other counties for supply of food. Industries are largely concentrated in Industrial Area, Kariobangi South and Baba Dogo.

Percentage of land with title deeds
The proportion of households that have title deeds in the County is low, a higher proportion of the non-poor compared to the poor own title deeds. The numbers of parcels held by the poor stands at 1,565 while those of the non-poor stands at 6,944. It is worth noting that all of the 1,565 parcels operated by the poor have no title deeds. This situation is also shared by 33.4% of the non-poor operating about 2,389 parcels.

Housing types
Materials used in the construction of dwelling units are an indicator of housing conditions and the extent to which they protect occupants from the elements and other environmental hazards. Availability of materials, cost, weather and cultural conditions have a major influence on the type of materials used in different localities. The housing type by wall materials in Nairobi County is mainly characterized. by stone, brick/block, mud/wood and corrugated iron sheet. The stone and block walled houses account for 65.9 per cent while wood and corrugated iron sheet account for 31.1 per cent. The classification by floor type indicates that 75.8 per cent of household have cement floor, 14.2 per cent earthen floor, 7.5 per cent tiles and 2.2 per cent for those with wooden floor. Most of the households in Nairobi have corrugated iron sheet roofed houses which accounts for 56.6 per cent. Tiles and concrete roofs account for 12.4 per cent and 27.9 per cent respectively.

Information Communication Technology & e- Government

This sector is in-charge of ICT in the county amongst other things all online payment especially eJijipay.
The Information, Communication and E-Government Sector functions include the following:

  • Automation of all County services in order to provide enhanced operational efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery;
  • Design and development of an interactive website through which information for public consumption can be uploaded thus provide a communication channel for exchange of views and opinions.
  • Implementation of recommendations contained in the ICT Transformation Roadmap that is anchored to County Integrated Development Plan;
  • Ensuring that the departments under the sector are aligned roles and responsibilities with the priorities and objectives set out in the Nairobi City County’s policies and plans;
  • Dissemination of public information and Public participation;
  • Development of county communications capacity and infrastructure;
  • County branding

The Information Communication Technology (ICT) function entails maintaining ICT standards within the County Government; spearheading e-Government initiatives in the county public Service; application of Information Communication Technology; systems analysis and design, developing and implementing computerized information systems; carrying out research and development on ICT standards, guidelines and approaches and coordinating their consistent and efficient application in County Public Service; formulating and developing County Government ICT infrastructure; coordinating and developing county website and portals; coordinating the development of the County ICT policy and regulatory framework; providing advisory services to departments on all matters related to ICT; training on the use of ICTs equipment & system applications, relevant software packages and developing customized applications; providing hardware maintenance support services; and liaising with hardware vendors for administration of guarantees and warranties.

Roads, Public Works and Transport

Road, railway network and airports
The current road network in the County is inadequate in terms of coverage to meet current
and future demands as envisaged in the Vision 2030. There is heavy congestion on most
of the City’s roads especially during the morning and evening peak hours. The total road
network covers 3,602 Km out of which 1,735 Km are tarmac while 1867 Km are earth roads. The current poor state of the road network is a great impediment to socio-economic growth leading to high production costs and low productivity. The completion of Thika Super Highway, by-passes and missing links within the County has helped to reduce truck congestion but a lot more needs to be done.

Nairobi County hosts three airports; Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Wilson Airport and Eastleigh Airport. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) is the biggest airport in East and Central Africa, and is the focal point for major aviation activities in the region. Its importance as an aviationncentre makes it the pacesetter for other airports in the region. JKIA, located 18 kilometers to the east of Nairobi City Centre, is served by 49 scheduled airlines. It has direct flight connections to Europe, the Middle East, Far East and the rest of Africa. JKIA has five
cargo facilities with a capacity to handle 200,000 tonnes of cargo annually, and an animal holding facility which occupies 4,318.95 square feet. The Airport has a runway measuring 4,117m long and 45m wide on 4,472.2 ha of land.

Last Update: December 6, 2021
December 6, 2021 388 DEBORAHNairobi County
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