Governance and Administration
This sector recognizes principles of devolution and the rule of law according to the constitution of Kenya 2010 and the County government Act 2012. Security under this sector is paramount and a major indicator to development.
A secure, just, cohesive, democratic accountable, transparent and conducive environment for a globally competitive and prosperous Kenya.
Ensuring effective and accountable leadership to promote a just, democratic and environment and establishes strong governance institutions to empower citizens for the achievement of socio-economic and political development.
Strategic Overview and Context for Budget Intervention;
To respond to above vision and mission, the County will strive to create a conducive environment in order to allow for smooth delivery of state services and for its population and other investors alike to fully engage in productive Processes. In particular, efforts will be put in to ensure law and order, speedy processing of business requirements such as licensing, access to justice and strengthening good governance. The administration through the development Committees will ensure that the facilities e.g. roads telephone education health are well maintained and improved so as to meet the requirements of the community. Efforts are also in place to ensure judicious use of public funds.
In view of the challenges faced by the Siaya county namely poor infrastructure lack of adequate equipment to fight crime poor collection of revenue cross border conflict, amongst others, the sector has an important role to play to ensure that proper governance and administrative structures are speedily set up in compliance with the constitution of Kenya 2010 and other enabling legislations.
Amongst the measures that have been proposed in this plan are established of Sub-County ward, and village management units (VMU) through Legislation. This will be undertaken by the executive and will be approved by the County assembly as required by the law before becoming operational.
Priority has also been given to disaster management through provision of fire fighting machines and rescue. To enhance security of Kenyan fishermen within Lake Victoria, the County proposes to establish ground security and Marine patrols necessary fishing grounds. This is aimed securing the sector which contributes greatly to County and national economy.
Agriculture, Irrigation, Food, Livestock and Fisheries
Main Crops Produced
Crop production is a major contributor to food self-sufficiency and security in the county. In addition, it contributes to poverty reduction through employment creation and value addition. The main food crops are maize, sorghum, beans, cassava and sweet potatoes. These are produced across all the six sub-counties, albeit with different intensities. Cash crops produced are mainly rice, sugarcane and groundnuts. Over the years cotton production has declined because of marketing problems. Vegetables produced in the County include; tomatoes, onions, avocado and kales while fruits are mangoes, pawpaw, bananas, oranges and watermelon. Some of the emerging crops in the County include: irrigated rice, palm oil, chilli, passion fruits and grain amaranth.
Acreage under Food and Cash Crops
The area under major food crops had a tremendous increase in 2014 compared to 2013. This was partly attributed to the introduction of Tractor Hire Service (THs) that accelerated the opening of more land for crop production. This was also contributed to by the subsidized seeds and fertilizers, favourable weather conditions and facilitation of agriculture extension staff. However in the subsequent years, there was both a drop in acreage under crop production and productivity. This was majorly caused by inadequate moisture resulting in some of the ploughed land remaining unattended to. In Agro Ecological Zones (AEZ) LM3 and LM5, most crops suffered water stress leading to depressed production. Pest and disease infestation such as out- break of fall army worm in 2016also exacerbated the situation.
Main Livestock Breeds and Facilities
Livestock production in Siaya includes rearing of beef and dairy cattle, poultry, sheep, goats and pigs. Other animals like donkeys, rabbits, bees and emerging livestock (e.g. quails, ostriches, crocodiles, silk worms) are also raised. It also entails forage production. Almost all household in the rural areas keep livestock. Some households in urban centres also keep livestock. Animal husbandry practices are almost uniform across the county with most
livestock species raised on extensive farming systems. A few farmers have shifted to intensive animal farming methods, which have increased the yield of the various livestock
Livestock production continues to play a major economic and socio-cultural role within the county. It provides a source of food, income, employment, power, organic manure, and a means of transportation. It is a significant user of products from feeds, drugs, vaccines and equipment manufacturing industries and is a major provider of raw materials for agro-processing industries. With the increasing population, incomes and urbanization, the demand for livestock and livestock products is on the increase.
Fisheries activities are major sources of income, food, employment and foreign exchange earnings in Kenya. Lake Victoria is the most important source of fish in East Africa and the biggest source of freshwater fish on the African continent. The lake is also important in conservation terms because of its great biodiversity of predominant fish species.
Fisheries in the County are two folds; capture fisheries from Lakes Victoria and Kanyaboli, and culture fisheries (aquaculture). The Siaya Waters of Lake Victoria directly employs 12,140 fishing crews operating 4,007 boats accounting for about 30% of the number of crews and 28% of fishing boats operating on the Kenyan side of the lake (Frame Survey, 2016). The fishing crews and crafts operating in Lake Kanyaboli stands at 834 and 398 respectively. In total, there are 83 fish landing sites on Lake Victoria and 4 on Lake Kanyaboli with the major ones being Usenge, Wichlum, Luanda Kotieno, Osindo and Nambo on Lake Victoria.
In addition to contributing directly to household incomes, bees play an important role in plant pollination. In 2016 the county had 10,600 beehives producing 513 MT of honey and 13 MT of beeswax, all valued at Ksh 183 million. Beekeeping is becoming increasingly popular due to the low investment and variable costs involved. The potential for apiculture is huge and underexploited.
Siaya County has an irrigation potential of 7100 hactares in its natural state. Areas suitable for irrigation include land along Lake Victoria and Kanyaboli; Rivers Yala, Nzoia and major streams such as Wuoroya. This acreage is not yet fully utilized despite the potential for expansion using irrigation dams. Over-reliance on rain fed agriculture has been the major reason for food insecurity in the county. This has made the county a net importer for most foodstuffs. With an irrigation potential of 7100 hactares, Siaya County would be food secure if more focus is put on expanding area under irrigation from the current 10 per cent to 20 per cent in the next five years. Besides, there is need to rehabilitate and expand the old schemes(Obenge, Nyangoe, Kasiri, Aram, East Yimbo, Central Sakwa, North Sakwa, North Alego and South East Alego and improve water use efficiency from the current 35 per cent to 50 per cent within the existing irrigation schemes. Farmers undertaking irrigation farming are few with very low adoption level on irrigation farming techniques, this situation calls for enhanced irrigation extension services. Irrigation farming in the county besides ensuring food security for the populace would create employment and stem rural – urban migration.
Education, Youth Affairs, Gender and Social Services
Overview of the Sector
The County has 652 primary schools, 237 secondary schools, seven tertiary institutions, 12 special education schools, one public university and 13 special units in regular primary schools. School enrolment is 80,672 pupils at pre-primary level, 248,336 pupils at primary school level, 78468 students at secondary school level, 2,759 at tertiary level, 1,847 in the university and 1,179 in the youth polytechnics. Basic literacy rate stands at 80 per cent.
The County has 1083 Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres composed of (700 public and 383 private) with an enrolment of 80,672(40,462 boys and 40,210 girls). 657 ECD teachers are employed by the County Government; however some are engaged by the communities. The teacher: pupil ratio is 1:33 while the transition rate is 94 per cent.
The County has 652 primary schools with a total enrolment of 248,336 pupils of which124,381 are boys and 123,955 are girls. The gross enrolment rate stands at 110 per cent. Theaverage years of attendance stands at 6.4. Understaffing remains a major challenge with most of the schools being understaffed. Despite the many schools, 18.25% of youths aged over 15 years cannot read and write.
There are19 youth polytechnics/ Vocational Training Centres spread across the County. Most of these polytechnics/ Vocational Training Centres are day based as they do not have boarding facilities. The general infrastructure in most of these institutions is also not good as some of the buildings are dilapidated and hence require urgent repair. The county has 35 instructors working in the youth polytechnics/Vocational Training Centres. This has made the institutions to rely on those hired by the Boards of Governors. The payment of the instructors engaged by the Boards of Governors is both low and sporadic. This has negatively impacted
on the quality of instruction in the youth polytechnics/Vocational Training Centres in the County. The institutions also lack modern tools and equipment for instruction. In implementing the 2013-17 CIDP, additional youth polytechnics/Vocational Training Centres have been constructed by the County Government. However, they are yet to be operationalized due to shortage of instructors, tools and equipment.
The county has over 237 secondary schools with an enrolment of 78,468 students. Theenrolment consists of 40,463 boys and 38,005 girls. The average year of attendance insecondary schools is 3.6 years. In terms of access, distribution by distance to the nearest public secondary school, 29.7 percent of the community lies within 0-1 Km of a public secondary school while 65.1 per cent and 5.2 per cent of the community lies within 1-4.9 Km and five Km and above of a public secondary school respectively. These disparities need to be addressed so as to ensure
equitable access to education within the county.
Higher learning institutions in the County include: Siaya Medical College, Siaya Institute and Siaya Agricultural Training Centre in Alego Usonga; Bondo Medical Training College, Bondo Teachers College, Bondo Institute and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology in Bondo; Rera Medical Training College, Moi University Odera Akang‘o Campus in Gem; Ugenya Medical Training College, Ugenya Teachers Training College and Ugenya Technical Institute in Ugenya. Plans are under way to establish the Barack Obama University College, a constituent college of Maseno University at the Siaya ATC Centre.
Adult and Continuing Education
Adult and continuing education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self- educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes or values. One of the primary goals of adult and continuing education is functional literacy. In Siaya there are adult and continuing education centres in Bondo (Township), Ugunja (prestige) and Gem (Bar Sauri).
Technical, Vocational Education and Training
As far as the provision of technical, vocational education and Training is concerned, there is Siaya Institute of Technology in Siaya town, Bondo Technical Training Institute in bondo and the newly constructed Ugenya Technical Training Institute in Ugenya which is yet to open its doors to potential trainees.
Finance and Economic Planning
To be the leading sector in planning, research, public policy formulation, coordination, supervision and efficiency in financial management.
To provide overall leadership and policy direction in research, planning, resource mobilization, financial management and accountability for sustainable socioeconomic development.
Through the department, the county has been able to achieve what it has achieved as the department coordinates all activities in other departments, approves them and allocates necessary resources.
Health and Sanitation
By improving access to quality Health care which is a constitutional right, the sector ensured
that essential primary health services are brought close to the people. This was achieved through establishment of community strategy, demand creation and utilization of promotive, preventive and curative health services by the community. In CIDP 2013-17 this was realized through construction of 30 new dispensaries, 14 maternity blocks, 26 staff houses, renovations and upgrading of facilities. The sector intends to optimize the functionality of
services at the health facilities in accordance to the level of care. Three strategies have been key to increasing access to health services namely Outreaches, the referral system and community health strategy. In order to provide health services equitably and cost effectively, the Sector has strengthen the referral system and the Beyond Zero. This was achieved through developed referral strategy that provided guidance to a responsive and effective referral system and interventions needed to improve efficiency Health services in the currently existing 187 Community Health Units.
The County currently has a total of 213 health facilities of which 147 are public health facilities. There is one County Referral hospital located in Alego Usonga and nine Sub County hospitals spread across the six sub counties .there are 34 health centers and 102 dispensaries.
Communicable diseases such as Malaria, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal, respiratory infections and Tuberculosis (TB) continue to dominate causes of ill health in the County. As per the Kenya Malaria indicator survey, prevalence rate in 2010 and 2015 was at 38 per cent and 27 per cent respectively for the Lake endemic region, that notwithstanding it contributes to 38 per cent of morbidity cause. New HIV infections have reduced from 16,147 cases to 8,260 cases annually between 2013 and 2015, although prevalence has remained relatively constant at
24.8 per cent (NACC 2015). This is largely attributed to success in the HIV care and treatment programs where individuals are living longer healthier lives as a result of the lifesaving anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs).TB treatment success rate has equally improved to 82 per cent in 2016 from 77 per cent. Diarrhoea cases in under five seen at the health facilities have reduced from 21 per cent in 2015 to 12 cent in 2017. Similarly, Pneumonia cases seen at
the outpatient among under fives reduced from 6 per cent in 2015 to 4% in 2017.
Although nutritional indicators have improved, Malnutrition is still one of the contributing
factors to morbidity and mortality especially in infants, children, Maternal, Geriatrics and people living with HIV/AIDS and TB. The 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey indicate that the nutritional situation of the county is still wanting. Poor infant and young child feeding practices continue to prevail with low rates of exclusive breastfeeding against the National target of 80% of children under the age of six months in 2017, late introduction of complementary food and poor dietary diversity.
Expanded Program on Immunisation aims at making immunisation services complementary
to other Primary Health Care (PHC) services. Its efficacy is key to reducing morbidity, mortality and disability from the vaccine preventable diseases among children below five years. Currently only 150 health facilities are offering immunization services in the County. Children are immunized against TB, Polio, Tetanus, hepatitis B, Haemophilas, influenza type B and measles. Fully immunized child coverage improved from 60 per cent to 80 per cent in 2017 which is still below the required national target of 95 percent.
The County access to pit latrines is at 82.4 per cent have access to pit latrines. The sewerage
access is estimated at 5 per cent courtesy of the completed Siaya – Bondo Water and
During the planning period the department will aim at actively promoting, conserving and
protecting environment; and improve access to safe water and urban sanitation for sustainable
Land, Physical Planning, Housing and Urban Development
Land Ownership Categories
Land in the County is categorised based as per the Constitution of Kenya 2010 as private
land, public land and community land. Private land, which forms most of the land in the county, is the category of land owned by private individuals. The rights and interests of this category of land have been fully ascertained through the process of land adjudication and therefore relatively easy to acquire for investment purposes. There however still exist sections whose rights and interest have not been determined and the county government needs to intervene to have the process finalised.
The classification on housing is based on the walling, roofing and floor materials used. It is estimated that 70.1 per cent of the households have earth floor, 29.0 per cent have cement floor, 0.40 per cent have tiles while 0.4 per cent have wooden floor. 63.8 per cent of households use mud/wood as the main type of walling material while 0.1 per cent of the households use tin as the main type of wall material. The main types of roofing material used
in the County include: corrugated iron sheets (65.9 percent), makuti/grass (32.1 per cent) and asbestos sheet (0.9 per cent).
Public Works, Energy, Roads and Transport
The main sources of lighting in the County include: paraffin 69 per cent, electricity 24 percent (KPLC County Electricity Access Rates of June 2016), solar 6 per cent and gas lamps 0.2 per cent while the main sources of cooking fuel used in the households include firewood 84.2 per cent, LPG gas 1.1 per cent charcoal 13.2 per cent while 0.8 per cent of the households use paraffin. 85 per cent of Trading centres, 89 percent of health facilities and ninety seven percent of secondary schools across the county are connected to electricity. The main cooking appliances include traditional three stone fire 71.4 per cent, ordinary jiko 10.8 per cent, improved modern cook stove 14.5 per cent, gas cooker 2 per cent, kerosene stove 0.6 per cent and electric cooker at 0.07 percent. Energy is a critical driver of the economy, standard of living and national security of every country. The level and the intensity of energy use in a country is a key indicator of economic growth and development. The Kenya
Vision 2030 identified energy as one of the infrastructure enablers of its social economic pillar.
Road, Rail Network, Airstrips and Jetties
As of 2017 the county had 434.2km of bitumen standard roads, 1297.41km gravel, 532.78 km of earth and a further 1,170 narrow roads. Major roads traversing the county are Kisumu-Busia Highway (which is an international trunk road, class B1), Luanda-Siaya (30 km), Siaya-Nyadorera (22 km), Rangala-Siaya-Bondo (34 km), Ngiya-Ndori(17 km), Ndori-Luanda-Kotieno (47 km), Bondo-Misori (26 km) and Kisian-Bondo-Usenge (72 km) roads. In addition, there are roads which are being upgraded to bitumen standard; these include
Akala-Luanda, Kodiaga-Wagai-Aluor-Onyinyore-Akala, Ugunja-Ukwala-Nyadorera, Butere-
Ugunja and Boro-Ndere roads.
Airstrips – There are three main airstrips in the county namely Gombe, Dominion and Sega. Their conditions are not very good and require attention. There is no airport in the county but Kisumu International Airport is only 75kms to Siaya town centre. Rail Network – Railway line passes through the county in Gem with a station at Yala.
However, the line is not in use. Harbours and Jetties – There are three jetties in the county namely Luanda K‘otieno, Asembo Bay and Usenge. Out of these, Asembo Bay is not functional.
Tourism, Culture, ICT, Sports and Arts
Main Tourist Attractions and Activities
Siaya prides herself of great Luo heroes, scholars, politicians as well as great chief cognizant of Odera Akang‘o who is well remembered for his powers being the first chief in Kenya to instill formal education.nSiaya County has diverse tourism attractions, ranging from natural, historical, flora and fauna and cultural attractions. This land potentially harbors different forms of tourism including agro tourism, sport tourism, eco-tourism, cultural tourism and culinary tourism.
The varieties of wildlife found in the County include hippopotamus (Lake Victoria, Rivers Nzoia and Yala), crocodiles (Yala Swamp, parts of the Lake Victoria), Sitatunga (Yala Swamp) and monkeys and leopards. The County has several species of fish, but the most popular ones are Nile perch, Rastrineobolaargentea (Locally known as Omena), Hatlochromines (locally known as Fulu or Wiu) and Nile Tilapia. Nile perch has a very high
commercial value and is responsible for the economic break through which has been experienced along the shore of Lake Victoria. Others are bushpig (mainly in Yala Swamp), Hyenas (Got Abiero, Utonga), various species of snakes e.g. pythons, cobras and various species of birds.
Currently there is no talent academy in the county. However, the County has a plan of
constructing the first sports academy at Migwena stadium. The construction will be done in
phases from 2018/2019 Financial Year.
The new constitution, 2010, created two levels of government, namely: the National Government and the 47 County Governments. The county Government is mandated among other things to: establish and manage sports academies; identify and develop sports talent at the County level; develop and manage county sports facilities; facilitate preparations and participation of inter and intra sports and raise resources for sports development at county level.
The County Government of Siaya has 12 sports facilities namely; Siaya stadium, Migwena, Akala, Nyilima, Mahaya, Bondo sports complex, Usenge, Muhondo, Yala, Hawagaya, Uasi and Uhembo sports grounds. There are 769 primary schools and 234 secondary schools with sports grounds. Other sporting facilities are found in Siaya Institute of Technology; Bondo University of Sience and Technology; Odera Akang‘o university campus; Bondo and Ugenya Teachers‘ Training Colleges; Siaya, Bondo , Rera and Ugenya Medical Training Colleges; and five Vocational Training Centres. The County has installed football, netball and volleyball goal posts in at least two primary schools and sports grounds in every ward within the County to create opportunities for the communities to involve their members in sporting activities.
Water, Environment and Natural Resources
The county has two (2) major rivers namely; Yala and Nzoia. These rivers form the County‘s drainage systems of major river basins with numerous tributaries and they drain directly into Lake Victoria. The seven major tributaries (small rivers) are Hwiro, Uludhi, Nyamonye, Wuoroya, Sese, Dhene and Seme Awach which are potentially important sources of water for farming and domestic use.
There are several swamps, wetlands, dams and pans. The major lakes in the County are Lake Victoria, Lake Kanyaboli and Lake Sare. Ground waters are found in Nyanzian rock aquifer system. Generally, the County has good potential of ground water. The potential however, diminishes as one approach the lake.
Surface water resources are the rivers, streams, lakes while the underground waters are those drawn through boreholes and shallow wells. There is abundant surface water available in the county but underground water potential is generally scarce in Bondo and Rarieda Sub-Counties. Run-off water can also be collected in small surface dams and earth pans. This alternative is particularly suitable for drier parts of the County in Uyoma, Asembo, Sakwa and parts of Alego Usonga.
Water Supply Schemes
Access to improved water sources in the county is estimated at 66 percent (KDHS 2014) leaving a majority of the population accessing unimproved water sources. The County has one major Water Service Provider, SIBOWASCO and currently runs 10 major Water Supply Schemes including Siaya, Bondo, Asembo-Ndori, South Sakwa, Sidindi Malanga, Ugunja, Ukwala, Sega, Mauna and Kogelo Water Supplies
Major Degraded Areas
Land degradation and ecosystem destruction continue to be a major concern in the county.
This is manifested in the silted water bodies such as water pans and rivers. In addition waste management remains a major challenge in most of our urban centres and is compounded by the increasing populations in such areas. Of late, the high need for road-surfacing material and other construction materials exacerbate land degradation incidences. These exist at localized scales in form of quarry mines, sand mines, eroded lands, bare soils and gravel extraction sites randomly spread across the county. The major county areas affected by land degradation include: Wichlum and Kamariga sand mining beaches in Bondo; Barding gold mining areas, Got Aduwa gravel site, Sumba sand mining site, Uranga murram extraction sites in Alego-Usonga; Eroded gulleys of Homba Stream in Gem; Misori Quarry sites in Rarieda; Bar-Ober and Jera Brick-making sites in Ugenya Sub-County.
Last Update: November 30, 2021