Health, and Nutrition
The health sector plays a pivotal role in economic growth and poverty reduction as exemplified in SDGs 1 and 3. Most of the key health indicators in the county are below the national average particularly those touching on infant and child mortality, nutrition, HIV/AIDS, malaria, upper respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, pneumonia and skin diseases a factor attributed to low health personnel to patient ratios, inadequate health facilities and equipment among other factors.
Community Unit Coverage
The community units are village committees that discuss the health issues at the village level. The units are very important in addressing health issues by creating awareness on the preventive measures. The community units are also able to follow up on persons who are ill to ensure they stick to the medication
Health Access and Facility Distribution
The county currently has no Referral Hospital, 11 Sub-county Hospitals, 20 health centres and 95 dispensaries.
(Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Children Under 5 Years: Height-For-Age, Weight-For-Height, and Weight-For-Age)
Malnutrition is an underlying factor in a large proportion of the illnesses that cause death among children below 5 years of age. Good quality nutrition during the period from birth to the age of 5 years is vital for optimal physical, mental and cognitive growth, health and development. Stunting (height-for-age), wasting (weight-for-height) and underweight (weight-for-age) are therefore key indicators of the nutritional status among children
Finance, and Public planning
The department has the following mandate
- Develop and implement financial and economic policies in the county;
- The provision of leadership and coordination in preparation of main county development plan documents, including the County
- Integrated Development Plan, Sub-County development plans, sector plans among others
- The coordination of government economic policies
- The coordination and preparation of the planning components of the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF)
- The coordination and provision of leadership in the national Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework, and the Annual progress reports
- Co-ordination and implementation of Kenya vision 2030 and Migori county CIDP
- Prepare annual budget for the county and coordinate the preparation of estimates of revenue and expenditure of the County Government;
- Coordinate the implementation of the budget of the County Government
- Mobilize resources for funding of the budgetary requirements of the County Government and put in place mechanisms to raise revenue and resources;
- Manage the County Government’s public debt and other obligations and, develop a framework of debt control for the county;
Consolidate the annual appropriation accounts and other financial statements of the County Government in a format determined by the Accounting Standards Board;
- Act as custodian of the inventory of the County Government assets except where provided otherwise by other legislation or the Constitution;
- Ensure compliance with accounting standards prescribed and published by the Accounting Standards Board from time to time;
- Ensure proper management and control of, and accounting for the finances of the County Government and its entities in order to promote efficient and effective use of the county’s budgetary resources;
- Maintain proper accounts and other records in respect of the County Revenue Fund, the County Emergencies Fund and other public funds administered by the County Government;
- Monitor the County Government’s entities to ensure compliance with the Public Finance Management Act and effective management of their funds, efficiency and transparency and, in particular, proper accountability for the expenditure of those funds;
- Assist County Government entities in developing their capacity for efficient, effective and transparent financial management, upon request;
- Provide the National Treasury with information which it may require to carry out its responsibilities under the Constitution and under the Public Finance Management Act;
- Issue circulars with respect to financial matters relating to the County Government entities;
- Advise the County Government entities, the County Executive Committee and the County Assembly on financial matters;
- Strengthen financial and fiscal relations between the National Government and the County Government in performing their functions;
- Report regularly to the County Assembly on the implementation of the Annual County Budget; and
Take any other action to further the implementation of the Public Finance Management
Trade Tourism and Cooperatives
Main Tourist Attractions and Activities
The county is strategically placed to benefit from western Kenya and northern Tanzania tourism circuits covering tourist attraction in Kisumu, Homabay, and Maasai Mara in Narok County. Locally the county is famous for the exisitence of the following attraction sites:The Crying stone of Kuria East, Thim Lich Ohinga, Mugabo Caves, God Kweru Religious Shrine, the scenic beauty of the islands in Lake Victoria and the Gogo Falls among others.
Currently, the County has no existing Game Reserve, Game Park, Bird Sanctuaries nor an Animal Orphanage though there exists great potential in harnessing wildlife through the protection of the few existing wildlife such as birds, monkeys and hippos, and through the development of contemporary tourism products such as MICE tourism.
Themain wildlife found in the county includerare local plant species and animals such as monkeys, snakes, leopards, gazelles, hyenas, hippos and a variety of birds.
Wildlife Conservation Areas (Game Parks, Game Reserves, Conservancies, Game Ranches)
Though the county does not currently have game parks, game reserves, animal sanctuaries or even national parks, it still provides viable opportunities for productive investment possibilities. Its proximity to Ruma National park, Maasai Mara Game Reserve and Serengeti Game Reserve in Northern Tanzania makes it a dispersal focal point for most tourists destined to these areas. The vibrant and rapidly expanding hospitality sector also guarantees the visitors excellent services away from the traditional areas.
Industry and Trade
The county has more than 47 open air markets which are distributed across the county. They formthe major sources of revenue to the county. However, during the previous plan period, the county constructed and operationalised 22 market sheds and improved their sanitation conditions through construction of VIP toilets and ablution block. Concerted efforts shall be made to refurbish and modernize the remaining markets during this plan period.
The main formal industrial venture in the county is the Sony Sugar Company. However, other ventures like the milk cooling and fish processing plants at Rongo sub-county are still at their early stages of development. The county’s cottage industry is still at infancy with over 5,000 artisans registered within the existing 200 Jua Kaliregistered associations. Most of these associations however are dormant and have therefore not been able to marshal sufficient capital to harness the creativity of the indigenous populations.
Land, Housing, and Physical Planning
Land Ownership Categories
There are two categories of land ownership, that is, public and private. The public land is under leasehold tenure system while the private land is individually owned under freehold tenure system.
Mean Holding Size
The mean holding size of land in the county is 3 acres for the small-scale farmers and 7 acres for the large farms. The small-scale farms are mainly utilised for subsistence farming while the large-scale farms are utilised for livestock and cash crop farming. The large farms are mainly found in Rongo, Nyatike, Kuria and Awendo subcounties. In urban areas, the mean holding size is 0.25 acres which is mainly used for commercial and residential purposes.
Percentage of Land with Title Deeds
Approximately 65% of the households in the County have title deeds. In Suna East and Suna West sub counties which are more cosmopolitan in nature the percentage of households with title deeds is relatively higher at 70% compared to other areas like Nyatike where land adjudication is ongoing.
Incidences of Landlessness
The cases of landlessness in the county are insignificant owing to the social structure of the communities where land is owned under the customary tenure system.
Among the factors contributing to rapid urban migration and settlement in Migori include the availability of employment and business opportunities, better living standards and better amenities. Due to these factors, Migori County continues to experience dense and nucleated urban settlement in the urban centres of Migori, Kehancha, Isebania, Rongo and Awendo. This has led to mushrooming of slums, pressure on social amenities and competition for jobs. All these have resulted in socio economic effects like prostitution and crime among others. The county government in collaboration with other development partners shall expand infrastructure, create more employment opportunities and provide a conducive environment for investment in order to cater for the ever-growing urban population.
Approximately 90% of the county’s population live in rural areas with mud walled structures being the most predominant mode of housing. According tothe Basic Report on Well Being in Kenya2015/2016, 71.5%, 6%, 4.1%, 6.7% and 4.8% of the county population live in mud/cow dung-walled houses,brick walled houses; cement blocks walled houses, houses with cement finishing and use corrugated iron sheets for walling respectively. Further, for roofing, 92.6% of the population use corrugated iron sheets whereas5.5% use grass. For flooring, 12.2 % of the population use earth, 52.7% use mud/cow dung and 33.5%use cement. The low usage of cement is attributed to high poverty levels.
Appropriate infrastructure for housing development is still lacking in the county and it is therefore imperative for the county government in collaboration with the national government and other development partners to modernize housing through appropriate support mechanisms such as mortgage guaranteeing, urban regeneration, appropriate building technologies and housing subsidies.
Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, and Water Development
Main Crops Produced
Agricultural activities occupy approximately 63% of the total land with 60% under food crop cultivation and the remaining 40% under cash crop cultivation. High potential regions of Uriri, Awendo, Kuria East, Rongo and parts of Suna East and Kuria West sub-counties are used for both food and cash crops production
Acreage under Food and Cash Crops
The main food crops produced in the county include cereals (maize, sorghum, rice, millet); pulses (beans, cow peas, green grams, soya beans), roots and tubers (sweet potatoes, cassava).Due to availability of rainfall and favourable climatic conditions, the county has the potential to produce enough for its population and export the excess to the surrounding market if sufficient measures shall be instituted to address challenges farmers face in the production of these crops i.e pests, marketing and poor harvest.
The main factors hindering food production in Migori include rapid urbanisation, water shortages, pest and diseases, climate change and the ever-growing population. In order to overcome these challenges and improve food security, the county government shall continue to provide farmers with inputs, promote agricultural mechanisation, provide extension services and put measures in place to reduce post-harvest losses.
The main cash crops grown in the countyincludes sugar cane and tobacco. Sugarcane is majorly
grown in Awendo, Rongo, Suna East and West sub-counties while Tobacco covers Kuria East and west and parts of Rongo sub-counties.However, other cash crops such as coffee and tea are grown but to a small scale.
Main Livestock Breeds and Facilities
Majority of the livestock farmers in the county rear traditional breeds such as Zebu, a few exotic breeds mainly crosses of Friesian and Ayrshire, East African goat, indigenous chicken and bees. Most of these livestock are bred for their sentimental value and are used only in emergencies to cover medical and transport costs, pay school fees, entertain guests and pay dowry. As a result, production of major livestock products has continued to remain low resulting in importation of the deficits from the surrounding counties to meet the huge local demand. The potential of practising modern livestock farming in the county is enormous given the good climatic conditions and fertile soils which support the growth of fodder crops especially in the upper parts of the county. During the current plan period, efforts shall be made in collaboration with development partners to empower farmers shift from traditional livestock to high yielding animals and poultry with the aim of increasing productivity, improving nutritional status as well as economic empowerment.
The major water resources in the county comprise of surface, ground and rain water. Surface water consists of Lake Victoria with a total water mass of 475 km2 and several rivers with the major ones being Kuja, Migori, Sare, Oyani, Riana, Tebesi, Misadhi and Ongoche. All these rivers drain into Lake Victoria. Ground water resources comprise of boreholes, shallow wells and springs.The quality of water from these sources – especially surface water is however relatively poor and usually requires treatment prior to domestic use.
Water Supply Schemes
The County has six urban water supply schemes – Migori Water Supply, Awendo Water Supply, Rongo Water Supply and Kehancha Water Supply. Other water supply schemes in the county are Macalder Water Supply in Nyatike Sub County and Uriri Water Supply in Uriri Sub County. The County Government with support from the Water Sector Trust Fund (WSTF)is currently under-taking completion works for Kegonga Water Project in Kuria East Sub County. Improvement works are also ongoing for Gogo Macalder Water Supply in Nyatike Sub County by World Vision (K) Ltd. Other piped water schemes includes Sony Sugar Company Water Supply in Awendo Sub County, Nyasare Water and Sanitation Company Ltd in Suna East Sub County, Nyaduong C WUA in Suna East Sub County, Nyaprosony Community Water Project in Nyatike Sub County and Rapogi Community Water Project in Uriri Sub County among others.
Environment, Natural Resources and Disaster Management
Sound environmental conservation results in preservation of natural resources thus, assuring continuous supply of environmental goods and services. In addition, proactive management of the environment pre-empts serious calamities and occurences such as drought, floods and global warming.The destruction of water catchment areas and prolonged drought for example has resulted to reduced water flowconsequently leading to a decline in hydro-power production at Gogo hydropower plant.
Environmental issues in the county include deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, flooding, littering and solid waste collection.
Widespread poverty in many parts of the county has greatly led to over exploitation of the limited forest resources.
Trees are cut purposely for charcoal business, timber and creation of more land for cultivation. Notable effects of the loss of forests have been soil erosion, the silting of dams and flooding and the loss of biodiversity.
Itmostlyoccurs during the months of April to June leading to displacement of people, loss of crops and property and frequent eruption of water-borne diseases due to contamination of the water sources.
Littering and solid waste collection: it’s a major problem in key towns as most of them do not have adequate garbage collection and disposal systems.
Roads, Transport, public works and Energy
Roads and Rail Network, Ports and Jetties, Airports and Airstrips Migori County borders Tanzania and is traversed by 163.6 km of tamacked road as compared to 68km as at 2013.The roads which have been tarmacked since 2013 include Road A1 that links Kenya with Tanzania through Isebania and the Rongo-Riosir road that links Migori and Kisii Counties. Other tarmacked roads within the county include: Isebania – Kehancha – Kegonga – Ntimaru road (E166), Muhuru Bay – Kehancha (C13), Rapogi – Ogwedhi (D202), Toku Bridge, Uriri-Oria, and Approach roads (E205) andKanga-Kitere Road.
The rest of the road network in the county is made up of 2,888 kilometers out of which 60% is gravel and 40% is earth.There are several footbridges and bridges including Kiringi and Toku Bridgeswhich were completed during the previuos plan period. There are three airstrips, namely, Lichota, Macalderand Kehancha in Suna West, Nyatike and Kuria West subcounties respectively.
Water transport is still at its infancy stage as boats rather than ferries form the major mode of transport despite the fact that 478 km2of the county land mass is comprised of water. It however remains a favorable means of transport between Migori and the adjacent destinations such as Mwanza in Tanzania, Homa-Bay County and major islands within the lake. Other means of transport like the railway and pipeline are not available.
Available statistics indicate that there is over dependence on non renewable hydro-electric power within the county as the main source of energy leading to exploitation of forest resources and low industrial productivity.Firewood, charcoal, kerosene, and LPG continue to be the main sources of cooking fuel at 82.1%, 10.3 %, 4.3%, and 4.0 % respectively based on theBasic Report on Well Being in Kenya2015/2016. For lighting 10.2% use electricity from the main grid,29.7% use solar,12.8%,46.2% and 0.2 % use lantern, tin and pressure lamps respectively.0.75%use torch while0.2 % use candles.
There is need to encourage improved and efficient use of alternative sources of energy other than firewood as the potential for harnessing solar, biogas and wind energyare available within the county.In addition, there ispotential for generation of electricity from locally available resources such as biomass from agricultural wastes and biogas from sugar cane to supplement the existing production from Gogo falls.
Education, Youths, Sports, Cultural, and Social Services
Primary and secondary schools in Migori County
As at 2017, the county had 817 primary schools comprising 616 public and 201 private primary schools with a combined enrolment of more than 254,000. The total number of teachers over the same period was 5918. Teacher shortage stood at approximately 904 teachers.
Pre- School Education (Early Childhood Development Education)
The County had 816 ECD centres, 670 and 1174ECDE teachers employed by the county government and community respectively as at 2017. Total enrolment stood at 109, 990 with a gender parity of 1:1pupils over the same period.The Teacher –Pupil ration and literacy levels stood at 1:60 and 87.6% respectively.
There are over 217 secondary schools in the county with an enrolment of 73,907 of 100,000 secondary school going population. This represents an average enrolment of 74% of the children eligible for secondary school education. According to MICS report 2017, the average net attendance at secondary school stood at 11.8 per cent with gender parity index of 2:0. With 56 per cent of the married having got married at between 15 and 17 years and with 49.4 per cent of the children who attend school being involved in some form of child labour, it is imperative that challenges of child marriages and child labour are addressed as a matter of priority.
The county had a total of 23 vocational Technical training institutions with a student population of 1200 and108 teachers as at the start of 2017 respectively. However most of these institutions recorded low enrolment due to the following factors: Inadequate provision and relevant technical skills that are responsive to the labour market, inadequate facilities, training tools and training materials. The lack of training facilities compromises the relevance of T.T.I taught skills necessary to meet skill needs in industries and business organizations. Therefore, during the planning period, considerable efforts shall be made to modernize equipments and provide adequate facilities to ensure that graduates coming out of T.T.Is acquire skills relevant to the employment market skill needs in both the industries and business organizations.
There is 1 university college, 4 university campuses, 10 ECDEs training colleges,1 public and 2
private teachers training colleges in the county. The county government has prioritized investment in education as one of the pillars to strengthen and revitalize the socio-economic standards of its people and build future careers for its youthful population who are estimated at over 49 per cent of the total population.
Last Update: December 2, 2021